Cataract is more common with advancing age. Cataract may be due to degeneration and opacification of existing fibres of the lens or an abberation in formation of new nerve fibres.
Risk Factors for Cataract:
The risk of cataract rises with increasing age, dehydration, heavy exposure to sunlight, Vitamin A,C,E deficiency, diabetes, smoking and steroid use.
The development of cataract is heralded by blurring of vision, frequent change in the power of glasses and uniocular polyopia. Some individuals may report paradoxial improvement in vision contributed by change in power occurred by cataractous changes – Second Sight.
Management Of Cataract:
Cataract is almost unresponsive to medical treatment except when due to a correctable cause like diabetes, steroid use etc. In other cases no medical or natural cure has any proven benefit.
The decision to operate a cataract for complete restoration of vision depends on the visual need of the patient and the degree of handicap created by the condition.
Removal of cataract is most commonly done by one of the following methods.
1.Intra Capsular Cataract Extraction
2.Extra Capsular Cataract Extraction
Post-Operative Care Of Cataract:
Post-operative care plays an important role to protect the eyes and parent infection from setting in. These include steroid eye drops, topical mydriatics, topical medications to reduce intra-ocular pressure, refraction testing and use of glasses and restricted activity.
Early and late post-operative complications that may occur must be diagnosed and treated adequately to avoid untoward complications.
Early Post-Operative Complications:
Retained lens matter
Posterior retinal detachment with retinal tear of hemorrhage
Exacerbation of Diabetic retinopathy
Toxic anterior segment syndrome
Toxic lens syndrome
Late Post-Operative Complications:
Cystoid macular edema
Exacerbation of diabetic retinopathy
Displacement of Intra ocular lens
Anterior capsule phimosis
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