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Compartment syndrome occurs most commonly due to injury involving main vessel of the limb. Edema occurs in the osteo fascial space increasing the pressure in the space.
Most commonly deep flexion compartment of forearm is involved. Flexor Digitorum Profundus and Flexor Pollicis Longus are the common muscles involved.
Eaton Test: This test is performed suggest Compartment Syndrome in a conscious patient. On stretching the fingers by extension, the patient experiences increasing pain. The test is non-specific may be positive in variety of conditions.
Muscle is the most susceptible tissue to rise in intra compartmental pressure. Nerves are able to withstand ischemia much longer.
Indications for fasciotomy:
1. Intracompartment Presure more than 30mm Hg
2. Intracompartment Pressure more than 20mm Hg when patient is unconscious or more than eight hours after injury.
Compartment syndrome is more common in anterior compartment of leg in athletes. Compartment syndrome if left untreated leads to Volkman’s ischaemic contracture.
Compartment Syndrome Powerpoints:
Compatment Syndrome – OTA
Abdominal Compartment Syndrome – Stanford
Compartment Syndrome – UK trauma
Compartment Syndrome Overview
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