It is defined as regular and rhythmic to-and-fro involuntary oscillatory movements of the eyes.
It occurs due to disturbance of the factors responsible for maintaining normal ocular posture.These include disorders of sensory visual pathway, vestibular apparatus, semicircular canals, mid-brain and cerebellum.
Features of nystagmus
It may be characterised by any of the following
1. It may be pendular or jerk nystagmus.
In pendular nystagmus movements are of equal velocity in
each direction. It may be horizontal, vertical or
In jerk nystagmus, the movements have a slow component in one direction and a fast component in the other direction. The direction of jerk nystagmus is defined by direction of the fast component (phase). It may be right, left, up, down or rotatory.
2. Nystagmus movements may be rapid or slow.
3. The movements may be fine or coarse.
4. Nystagmus may be latent or manifest.
Nystagmus: Causes, Effects, and Treatment of the Disorder
BENIGN PAROXYSMAL POSITIONAL VERTIGO
ACTIVE TREATMENT OF CONGENITAL NYSTAGMUS:
Vestibular Rehabilitation and Surgical Management
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