Hyperplastic obesity is difficult to curb than the hypertrophic obesity. Gynoid (female type) obesity is less risk prone than Android (male type) obesity.
The abdominal fat cells have more number of glucocorticoid receptors, beta 3 receptors and their density (number of cells per unit mass) is also higher than the fat tissue in any other site. Remember, abdominal fat tissue has got androgen (male hormone) receptors and also more blood circulation than other fat tissues. So these are more prone to get hypertrophied and hence the reason fat deposits more in abdomen, especially that of males.
Measurement is taken with the point being at the midpoint between lower border of rib cage and illiac crest. A circumference of more than 102cm in males and 88 cm in females is considered to be unhealthy.
Broca’s index- Height in cm – 100 = ideal weight.
BMI or Quetelet’s Index- Weight in kg/ square of height in m. Normal range should be 18.5-24.9.
25-30 is over weight. Obesity is BMI more than 30. BMI more than 40 is morbid obesity.
Corpulence index:- Actual weight / Desirable weight. A ratio more than 1.2 is dangerous.
BMI is not very useful in terms of measuring the exact fat mass of our body. Athletes will have a BMI of more than 25, but it is primarily due to their muscle mass.
Skin Fold Thickness:-
Thickness of skin from 4 sites (mid biceps, mid tricesp, subscapular and ileac) are measured using callipers and added. A sum of more than 40 in males and more than 55 in females is suggestive of excessive fat deposition.
Recent researches have shown that sudden abstinance from physical activity (retirement of athletes, bed ridden state of a previously active person, etc.) is more important in the causation of obesity.
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