medical ppt Pathology
Normally, there is about 30 to 50 mL of thin, clear, straw-colored (serous) fluid in the pericardial sac. Pericardial effusions in excess of this amount occur in a number of settings, in addition to the inflammatory states described above. The major types and some of their more common causes include:
Serous: CHF, hypoalbuminemia of any causeSerosanguinous: blunt chest trauma, malignancy, ruptured MI, or aortic dissectionChylous: mediastinal lymphatic obstruction
The consequences of pericardial effusions depend on the ability of the parietal pericardium to stretch. This, in turn, depends on the amount of fluid and the tempo of its accumulation. Thus, slowly accumulating effusions-even as large as 1000 mL-can be tolerated without clinical manifestation. In contrast, rapidly developing collections of as little as 250 mL (e.g., ruptured MI or ruptured aortic dissection) can restrict diastolic cardiac filling to produce fatal cardiac tamponade.
Normal Pericardial Physiology and Tamponade Physiology (PowerPoint …
Percardial effusion & tamponade – ICU Grand Round
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