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What is pulse polio immunization?
Pulse polio is an immunization campaign established by the government of India in 1994 to eradicate poliomyelitis (Polio) in India by vaccinating annually all children under age five against poliovirus. Every child below 3 yearsa of age was given two doses of oral polio drops with one month apart. In order to accelerate pace of polio eradication the target age was increased to cover children below 5 years of age from 1996.Pulse polio immunization means intermittent polio immunization drive in the community or region to vaccinate all susceptible children irrespective of their previous immunization status. Pulse poli immunization helps to replace the wild rirus (disease causing virus) by vaccine virus in community. Many countries like Brazil, cuba and Israel have eradicated polio disease by adapting pulse polio approach. This is done using oral polio vaccine.
What is Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance?
The objective of Acute Flaccid Paralysis(AFP) surveillance is to detect the exact geographic locations where wild polioviruses are circulating in the human population.
All cases of acute flaccid paralysis AFP in children aged<15 years are rigorously investigated by a trained medical officer, with collection of stool specimens to determine if poliovirus is the cause of the paralysis. Analysis of the location of polioviuses isolated fromAFP cases allows programme managers to plan immunization campaigns to prevent continuing circulating of virus in these areas. The National polio surveillance project (NPSP) is a collaborative project of the Government of India and the WHO.
What are the advantage of sequential use of OPV and IPV?
* predictability of serconversion is very high
* Mucosal immunity is very high
* serovonversion ratae is very high secondary transmission of vaccine virus is more with synergy
* Herd immunity is high
* Interference with maternal antibodies is nil
* Potential for mutation and becoming neurovirulent strains is ruled out
* Can be used in immunocompromised patients
* vaccine uptake even during acute infantile diarrhea is high
* Is relatively more thermostable
What has been the impact of ‘Global Polio Eradication Initiative’?
* From its lauch in 1988 totarget date of 2005,5 million people who would otherwise have been paralyzed will be walking.
* By preventing a debilitating disease it will help in reducing poverty and give a greater chance to children and their families to lead healthy and productive lives.
* It has helped to provide key demographic data by accessing children in remote areas.
* Polio Eradication Initiataive has extended the capacity of most countries to tackle other disease by building effective disease reporting and surveillance systems/training epidemiologists and establishing a global laboratory network
* Routaine immunization services have been strengthened by bolstering the cold chain transport and communication systems for immunizations.
* In 2001 over 60 countries gave vitamin A drops during polio national immunization days.
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