medical ppt Pathology
Raynaud phenomenon results from an exaggerated vasoconstriction of digital arteries and arterioles. These vascular changes induce paroxysmal pallor or cyanosis of the digits of the hands or feet; infrequently, the nose, earlobes, or lips can also be involved. Characteristically, the involved digits show red, white, and blue color changes from most proximal to most distal, correlating with proximal vasodilation, central vasoconstriction, and more distal cyanosis . Raynaud phenomenon may be a primary disease entity or be secondary to a variety of conditions.
Primary Raynaud phenomenon (previously called Raynaud disease) reflects an exaggeration of central and local vasomotor responses to cold or emotion, with a prevalence in the general population of 3% to 5% and a predilection for young women. Structural changes in the arterial walls are absent except late in the course, when intimal thickening can appear. The course of primary Raynaud phenomenon is usually benign, but long-standing, chronic cases can result in atrophy of the skin, subcutaneous tissues, and muscles. Ulceration and ischemic gangrene are rare.
In contrast, secondary Raynaud phenomenon refers to vascular insufficiency of the extremities in the context of arterial disease caused by other entities including SLE, scleroderma, Buerger disease, or even atherosclerosis. Indeed, since Raynaud phenomenon may be the first manifestation of such conditions, any patient with symptoms should be evaluated; 10% will eventually manifest their underlying disease
You Might Have Missed These Posts